Not only does the way we consume energy play a key role in the effectiveness of our Climate Change strategy, it also influences Air Quality and represents a significant proportion of our operating costs. We consume energy primarily through fossil fuel combustion (diesel, gasoline, propane and natural gas) and electricity use. In 2022, Alamos internally released an Energy & Greenhouse Gas Management Standard which provides our mine sites direction on managing energy use, preparing an Energy Management Plan, and implementing the Plan to focus on energy reduction. Sites are encouraged to set site-specific targets for reducing total energy usage.

At all three of our operating mines, light vehicles are fueled by gasoline while heavy vehicles use diesel. At our Canadian mines, Young-Davidson and Island Gold, a portion of the diesel blend used for heavy vehicles is Biodiesel – which, in comparison to petroleum diesel, emits less air pollution and is less toxic in the event of a spill. Propane gas has primarily been used in Canada to heat our buildings and underground mines in the winter. In the final quarter of 2022, the Young-Davidson Mine transitioned from propane to compressed natural gas, which emits fewer greenhouse gases on a per-Gigajoule basis.

Electricity is primarily used by our crushing and milling operations, underground ventilation, and in material handling, and is sourced from the Ontario grid at the Young-Davidson and Island Gold Mines. Ontario has a clean electricity grid comprised of a diverse supply mix, including hydro, nuclear, natural gas and renewables. At the Mulatos Mine, the construction of an electrical transmission line is underway which, when completed, will connect the site to the Mexico grid and reduce the mine’s greenhouse gas emissions. Until the completion of this project, Mulatos will continue to use diesel generators for electricity production.

Energy Consumption1 (GJ)

Table 4.1

Fuel Consumption
Alamos TotalYoung-DavidsonIsland GoldMulatos
Heavy Fuel Oil21,16201,1620
Petroleum Diesel1,932,428143,491159,6461,629,291 
Biodiesel26,90618,5328,374 0
Gasoline36,877 2,209 8,864 25,804 
Propane Gas3292,814 186,337 51,808 54,669 
Compressed Natural Gas360,800 60,800 00
Total2,357,421417,804229,853 1,709,764 
Electricity4 Consumption
Total Electricity Generated193,4658050192,660 
Renewable Electricity Purchased0000
Non-Renewable Electricity Purchased1,223,946 914,699 308,539 708 
Total Energy Consumption5
Total3,581,3661,332,503538,392 1,710,472 
Portion of Total Supplied from Grid Electricity 34% 68% 57% <1% 
Portion of Total from Renewable Sources 0% 0% 0% 0% 

Energy Consumption (GJ)

Figure 4.1


Island Gold


Text descriptions of each chart

Energy Intensity Ratios (GJ)6

Table 4.2

Young-DavidsonIsland GoldMulatos202220212020
Energy per Tonne of Ore Mined
0.481.28 0.29 0.39 0.57 0.40 

Energy per Tonne of Ore Treated

0.471.18 0.21 0.31 0.350.32 

Energy per Ounce of Gold Production

6.93 4.03 12.72 7.787.97 7.46 


Our Commitment

Water plays a central role in every aspect of the mine life cycle. From localised water use during exploration to the management of final effluents throughout operations and closure, the state of water quality and quantity  is integral to  the way we do business. Water is also a valuable source of sustenance and an otherwise significant resource for many Indigenous communities. In recognition of these compounding factors, Alamos is committed to collaborating with stakeholders to better manage our water use.  

Alamos employs a number of systems to help us identify and minimise water-related impacts. Our company-wide Water Management Standard provides sites with guidance for implementing effective water management practices, covering the withdrawal, use, storage, recycling, treatment and discharge of water. The purpose of the Standard is to define site requirements for developing proper water monitoring and control plans to reduce potential effects on the environment while meeting all jurisdictional requirements. We also maintain comprehensive surface and ground water monitoring programs at all of our sites. Numerous locations at each site are monitored routinely to assess the state of water quantity (through the assessment of water levels, flow velocities, and other hydrological indicators) and water quality (through external laboratory analysis of grab samples for a broad suite of analytes). Further, comprehensive reviews of site-wide water balances and water management facilities take place at each of our operations. As a result of our stringent and proactive water management systems, no significant water-related impacts were identified in 2022, and there were 0 incidents of non-compliance with water quality permits or regulations that resulted in formal enforcement action.   

Table 4.3

Company-Wide Water Interactions 

Total Water Withdrawn (ML) 
(water taken from the environment) 
Total Water Discharged (ML)

(water released to the environment) 
3,050.6 1,797.9 3,247.1 
Total Water Treated (ML) 1,707.7 1,414.2 2,779.9 
Total Water Consumed (ML)
(= withdrawals – discharges) 
3,445.39 3,072.7 202.5 
Total Water Recycled/Reused (ML)
(water used from on-site stores)
2,040.6 3,572.74,150.3 
Total Water Used (ML)
(= consumed + recycled) 
5,485.810 6,645.4 4,402.8 
Portion of Water Recycled/Reused 
(= recycled / used)
37.2%11 53.7% 94.3% 
Total Water Intensity (m3/t)
(= consumed / tonne of ore treated)
0.3012 0.30 0.03 

In 2022, Young-Davidson isolated and reported the volume of rain and snowmelt for the first time. The inclusion of this value has created a significant increase to the site-level and company-wide figures for water withdrawals, in turn influencing the values of water consumption, use, intensity and the portion of water recycled. This information is unavailable for prior years, thus the restated information for 2021 and 2020 does not include this figure. As such, the above year-on-year comparison for these indicators has been impacted. 2022 figures excluding Young-Davidson’s rain and snowmelt withdrawals have been provided in the associated footnotes for a more accurate comparison of performance (Figure 4.2). This normalized analysis still depicts a reduced water recycling rate in 2022— note that this decrease appears in tandem with an overall reduction in water use. Throughout their life cycle, each mine operation moves through various phases of water requirements. Volumes of water withdrawals, discharges, storage, treatment, consumption, and use are constantly in flux (as demonstrated by the high variability of water intensity values in Figure 4.3). Alamos has not yet set company-wide water-related objectives and targets. Objectives for maximized water reuse and recycling are set by each of our mines individually.

Company-Wide Water Interactions

Figure 4.2

  • Withdrawn
  • Discharge
  • Treated
  • Consumed
  • Recycled/Reused
  • Used

Water Consumed per Tonne of Ore Treated
(By Site)

Figure 4.3

Text descriptions of each chart

A section header image of the Montreal River which is a source of freshwater for the Young-Davidson mine.


The Young-Davidson Mine predominantly interacts with the nearby Montreal River; freshwater is withdrawn from an upstream portion, and treated effluent is discharged to a downstream portion. The river is not considered an area of water stress or a listed conservation area, but is of high importance to local Indigenous Peoples. Groundwater withdrawals also occur at the Young-Davidson Mine, as water is pumped out from the underground mine workings to allow safe operations. In 2022, water withdrawals from underground and surface sources totaled to 3,172 ML (including rain and snowmelt), and discharges totaled to 1,165 ML – both less than 5% of the annual average volume of the water body. To protect the quality of the Montreal River, all effluents undergo biological nitrification and treatment for metals prior to discharge. Our underground mine water undergoes treatment via a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR), and tailings effluent undergoes cyanide destruction using sulphur dioxide (SO) as well as ammonia reduction via Submerged Attached Growth Reactor (SAGR) technology. The list of priority substances of concern for which discharges are treated has been guided by the Metal and Diamond Mining Effluent Regulations (MDMER). This regulation sets effluent concentration limits for arsenic, copper, cyanide, lead, nickel, zinc, suspended solids, radium 226, and un-ionized ammonia. The MDMER also requires Environmental Effects Monitoring studies, which include the analyzation of an additional 19 parameters such as chromium, iron, mercury13, and selenium. The site also has a provincially regulated Environmental Compliance Approval (ECA) for water discharge to the environment. There were no unplanned discharges throughout the year at Young-Davidson, and no instances of non-compliance with discharge limits.  

Table 4.4

2022 Young-Davidson Water Withdrawals and Discharges14

Water Withdrawn (ML)15Water Discharged (ML)
Surface Water439.0 1,164.9 
Ground Water1,004.1 0
Sea Water00
Rain and Snow Melt1,729.3 0
Third Party Water00
Produced Water00

Table 4.5

2022 Young-Davidson Water Consumption

Total Water Consumption (ML)2,007.4 
Water Intensity (m3/t)160.1
A section header arial view image of Alamos' Island Gold mine


The Island Gold Mine’s potable water is sourced from Maskinonge Lake, while discharges are directed to Goudreau Lake. Neither water body is considered an area of water stress or a listed conservation area, but both have been deemed of high importance to local Indigenous Peoples. Groundwater withdrawals also occur at Island Gold, as water is pumped out from the underground mine workings to allow safe operations. In 2022, 1,017 ML of water was withdrawn from Maskinonge Lake and underground sources, and 1,469 ML was discharged to Goudreau Lake – with both indicators equating to less than 5% of the annual average volume of the respective water body. Because more water was discharged than withdrawn, Island Gold reports a negative water intensity. To protect the water quality of Goudreau Lake amongst these discharges, we use semi-passive water treatment methods. Effluents are treated in holding ponds, where solids are removed by coagulation and flocculation, Cyanide is naturally degraded, and acidity (pH) is chemically regulated prior to discharge. The Island Gold Mine is also subject to the MDMER and an ECA, which guides the priority substances of concern for treatment. There were no unplanned discharges throughout the year at Island Gold, and no instances of non-compliance with discharge limits.

Table 4.6

2022 Island Gold Water Withdrawals and Discharges17

Water Withdrawn (ML)Water Discharged (ML)
Surface Water63.9 1,468.8 
Ground Water559.5 0
Sea Water00
Rain and Snow Melt393.2 0
Third Party Water00
Produced Water00

Table 4.7

2022 Island Gold Water Consumption

Total Water Consumption (ML)-452.1 
Water Intensity (m3/t)18-1.0 
A section header arial view image of Alamos' Mulatos mine


The Mulatos Mine withdraws water from the Mulatos River and the Yécora aquifer. With 10 protected species being found in the Mulatos River, the water body is recognised as a protected area; however, with less than 5% of the river’s annual average volume having been withdrawn in 2022, (a total of 2,307 ML), the area was not significantly impacted. Mulatos discharged a total 417 ML of water during the year, to two separate destinations. Domestic sewage is discharged to the Los Bajos Creek after undergoing biological treatment via activated sludge. All other contact water is subjected to a lime-based chemical precipitation treatment that balances pH and removes heavy metals and sulfates, prior to being discharged to the Mulatos Creek (which flows into the Mulatos River). The list of priority substances of concern for which discharges are treated are determined by the Mexican Official Standard NOM-001-SEMARNAT-2021, which establishes maximum allowable limits for pollutants in wastewater discharges into national receptive bodies. For mining-related discharges, Mulatos pays particular attention to cyanide, heavy metals, and parameters contributing to acidity. For domestic sewage-related discharges, treatment focuses on biological parameters. There were no unplanned discharges throughout the year at Mulatos, and no instances of non-compliance with discharge limits.

Table 4.8

2022 Mulatos Mine Water Withdrawals and Discharges19

Water Withdrawn (ML)Water Discharged (ML)
Surface Water1,191.7 379.4 
Ground Water46.4 37.5 
Sea Water00
Rain and Snow Melt1,068.9 0
Third Party Water00
Produced Water00

Table 4.9

2022 Mulatos Mine Water Consumption

Total Water Consumption (ML)1,890.0 
Water Intensity (m3/t)200.3

Table 4.10

Acid Rock Drainage

Young-DavidsonIsland GoldMulatos
Predicted to OccurFalseFalseTrue
Actively MitigatedN/AN/ATrue
Under Treatment/RemediationN/AN/ATrue


Tailings are a common by-product of the mineral recovery process. Often taking the form of a slurry, they consist of finely crushed rock, water, and chemical additives used to facilitate mineral extraction. Following mineral processing, tailings are usually disposed within engineered containment facilities. For our two tailings-producing mines (Young-Davidson and Island Gold), the safe and responsible management of our tailings facilities (TFs) is essential for protecting the natural environment, local communities, our operations and our workforce. The Mulatos Mine does not produce tailings.

Tailings Produced (t)

Table 4.11

Young-DavidsonIsland GoldMulatos
Surface Tailings1,172,990432,2950
Sub-Surface Tailings1,686,61800
Total Tailings2,859,608432,2950

Internally, our Tailings Management Standard defines the requirements for developing and implementing site-specific tailings management systems, and outlines the minimum expectations, practices and guidelines for the location, design, construction, operation, maintenance, surveillance, and closure of our TFs. This Standard provides guidance to our operations in identifying, understanding, and managing TF-related risks. The Standard applies to all Company TFs that are planned, in construction, in operation, in decommissioning and that are closed. Our financial capacity to safely close and reclaim each of our TFs is confirmed through the annual accounting of our company-wide Asset Retirement Obligations.

Externally, Alamos is subject to rigorous regulatory requirements that govern our efforts related to tailings management, storage, and treatment – all the way from early mine design through to mine closure and reclamation. We construct, maintain and manage each TF in close collaboration and consultation with relevant government bodies, independent engineering firms, tailings experts and local stakeholders including representatives from our local Indigenous communities. We also adopt leading international standards in TF design, operation and closure, with specific emphasis on the recommendations of the Mining Association of Canada’s (MAC) Guide to the Management of Tailings Facilities and the Canadian Dam Association’s (CDA) Guidelines and Technical Bulletins.

The structural integrity of our TFs is closely monitored and maintained to minimise the risk of failure. When designing our TFs, independent engineers with recognised expertise are tasked with the verification of design assumptions. They further assess the local risk of natural phenomena that can adversely affect the integrity of our facilities, including seismic events, flooding, and operational constraints. The location of a TF relative to our operations, local communities, and environmentally sensitive areas is carefully considered during the design process. During the active life of our TFs, we employ performance monitoring programs that include daily, monthly, and quarterly inspections by qualified persons.

In 2021 Alamos completed an internal assessment of its performance against the Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management (GISTM). The results of the assessment were used to identify opportunities for improvement, and to inform site plans to remediate higher-risk gaps. In 2022 we began addressing these gaps. At the Young-Davidson Mine, we prepared a Climate Change model to review how future changes in temperatures, precipitation and evaporation may effect long-term design plans for the closure of our tailings facilities. At Island Gold, we updated our Dam Breach Analysis and our Operations, Maintenance & Surveillance (OMS) Manual.

As part of each site’s OMS Manual (and overarching Emergency Response Plan), tailings-specific Emergency Preparedness and Response Plans (EPRP) are in place. The EPRP and OMS Manual were originally developed to meet the recommendations of MAC’s Developing an Operation, Maintenance, and Surveillance Manual for Tailings and Water Management Facilities. After these files were assessed against GISTM, our 2022 priority was to address any high-priority gaps in procedure.

The reporting structure for tailings management begins at the site level. Site leadership works with Alamos’ Independent Tailings Review Board21 (ITRB), the Engineer of Record, and the corporate Tailings Working Group. These three entities report to the Executive Steering Committee, who then report to the Technical & Sustainability Committee of the Board. The accountable executive for responsible tailings management is the Chief Operating Officer.

For a detailed description of our tailings management procedures and practices, including facility-level specifications, please see our Overview of Alamos Tailings Facilities document.


The safe storage, handling, and disposal of all types of waste is a necessity at all Alamos operations. Our internal Non-Hazardous & Hazardous Waste Management Standard and Mine Ore & Waste Stockpile Management Standard apply to all sites and define the minimum requirements to manage waste in accordance with our values. The Non-Hazardous & Hazardous Waste Management Standard stipulates that: hazardous and non-hazardous waste, including domestic waste, must be separated and labelled prior to storage and disposal; all on-site waste storage facilities align with leading industry practices (such as secondary containment and coverage) and applicable legislative requirements, and; the transportation and offsite disposal of waste must be carried out within 90 days of the generation date by licensed contractors. The Mine Ore & Waste Stockpile Management Standard stipulates that sites must: assess the potential for acid generation and the leaching of metals at all stockpiles; assess the geotechnical and seismic stability of stockpiles with a life of longer than one year; construct, operate, maintain, and monitor stockpiles in a manner ensuring long-term geotechnical stability, and; develop and maintain site-specific Mine Ore and Waste Stockpile Materials Management Plans that establish relevant internal procedures and responsibilities. Each site has its own waste management program in place to ensure that these stipulations, alongside any additional jurisdictional requirements, are satisfied by both Alamos and our third-party waste management suppliers – at all stages of the mine life cycle.

As a general rule, Alamos seeks to reduce the amount of waste produced at our mines. The negative impacts associated with excessive waste generation can be caused both directly by Alamos (such as increased safety risks from on site waste storage) and indirectly through our value chain (such as increased land use by landfills and emissions from off-site incineration). To prevent waste generation at our sites, we procure materials to meet our operational demands. To lessen the impact of generated waste at our operations, waste is recycled whenever possible. Between 2020 and 2021, Alamos saw a steep rise in overall waste generation as a result of increased rock displacement (mineral waste generation) during construction at Mulatos’ La Yaqui Grande project. These enlarged figures for mineral waste and total waste continued to rise in 2022 until the project’s June completion.

Waste Management Metrics (Tonnes)

Table 4.12

Alamos Total
Young-DavidsonIsland GoldMulatos202220212020

Non-Mineral Waste

Non-Hazardous Waste Disposed22 5282,4317913,7503,5742,066
Non-Hazardous Waste Recycled/Reused 1,4405257472,7122,3672,003
Hazardous Waste Disposed 3497585716516322
Hazardous Waste Recycled/Reused23 7344379496628395
Total Non-Mineral Waste Generated2,0753,0982,5027,6747,0854,786
% Non-Mineral Waste Recycled/Reused72.9%18.4%45.0%41.8%42.3%50.1%

Mineral Waste24

Non-Hazardous Waste Rock Disposed (NPAG)25 598,721 363,909 5,171,690 6,134,320 6,805,2655,327,621
Non-Hazardous Waste Rock Recycled/Reused 1,686,618 001,686,618 437,942 489,196 
Hazardous Waste Rock Disposed (PAG)26 0024,392,920 24,392,920 23,953,694 5,116,366 
Tailings Disposed27 2,859,608 432,295 03,291,903 3,315,839 2,562,974 
Hazardous Mineral Waste Recycled/Reused 000000
Total Mineral Waste Generated5,144,947 796,204 29,564,610 35,505,761 34,512,740 13,496,157 

Total Mineral and Non-Mineral Waste Discarded, Recycled, and Generated

Total Waste Disposed28 3,458,891 798,732 29,565,986 33,823,609 34,078,888 13,009,349 
Total Waste Recycled/Reused 1,688,131 56911261,689,826 440,937 491,594 
Total Waste Generated 5,147,022 799,301 29,567,112 35,513,435 34,519,825 13,500,943 
% Waste Recycled/Reused 32.8% 0.0% 0.0% 4.8% 1.3% 3.6% 

Company-Wide Waste Generation vs Waste Recycling/Reuse (tonnes)

Figure 4.4

Text descriptions of each chart

Waste is deemed hazardous if it possesses properties that can be harmful to the health and safety of people or the natural environment. All staff who interact with hazardous waste are trained in proper storage and handling techniques, and the risks associated with hazardous waste are considered in our routine health and safety risk assessments on site. Each site maintains its own Spill Response Procedure which outlines the process for safely addressing and remediating spills. Unfortunately, in 2022, two reportable spills/releases of hazardous materials occurred at Young-Davidson, and one occurred at Mulatos. The impacted areas were remediated with no anticipated long-term effects. None of these three spills resulted in fines.

Reportable Spills

Table 4.13

Young-DavidsonTransmission Oil 100 LSpill contained by snow and removed 
Young-DavidsonCompressed Natural Gas271-293 GJ Gaseous contents vented off to environment 
MulatosBarren Solution3.1m356m2 of soil contaminated and removed 

Mulatos did incur a fine of $2,649 in relation to the mishandling of non-hazardous used cooking oil from the camp’s kitchen facility. The Sonora State Environmental authority Procuraduría Ambiental del Estado de Sonora (PROAES) allotted the sanction on the grounds that, under a new State law as of January 2022, the waste-management service provider recovering Mulatos’ used kitchen oil was unauthorized to do so. At the time of the sanction, no company was duly authorized by the State to recover the waste. The issue has since been resolved.


Mining can have profound impacts on nature, both locally and in broader contexts. In terms of direct local impacts, the construction and operations phases of the mining lifecycle can alter terrestrial and aquatic habitat and airways, which can result in local species reduction as well as other general changes to ecological processes that are outside of the natural range of variation. Based on the amount of surface area impacted, direct habitat conversion is inherently more consequential at open-pit mines (such as the Mulatos mine) than underground mines (such as the Young-Davidson and Island Gold mines). In the broader context of indirect impacts, emissions from mining activities contribute to climate change, which can alter habitats globally.

Biodiversity Value

Table 4.14

Young-DavidsonIsland GoldMulatosLynn Lake 
ProjectTürkiye Combined 
ProjectsEl Chanate
IUCN Red List Species Identified as Potentially Impacted by Operation29
Critically Endangered130000231132
Near Threatened136283
Least Concern159292591115448

Areas with Protected Conservation Status Identified as Potentially Impacted by Operation
Protected AreaWest Montreal River Provincial ParkNoneMulatos RiverNoneNoneNone
InteractionOperation is adjacent to a protected areaOperation contains a portion of a protected area

Operations with High Biodiversity Value
Operations Potentially Impacting Endangered or Critically Endangered SpeciesTrueTrueTrueTrueTrueTrue
Operations Potentially Impacting Areas with Protected Conservation StatusTrueFalseTrueFalseFalseFalse
Systems With Attributable High Biodiversity ValueFreshwater and terrestrial ecosystemsTerrestrial ecosystemsFreshwater ecosystemsFreshwater and terrestrial ecosystemsFreshwater and terrestrial ecosystemsTerrestrial ecosystems

While the tallies of potentially-affected species in Figure 4.14 have been reported against the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN’s) Red List categorization of global conservation status,  our operations track and manage species at risk in accordance with their respective jurisdictional requirements. Our Canadian operations comply with the Canadian Species at Risk Act and provincial legislation such as Ontario’s Endangered Species Act.  Our Mexican sites comply with the Ley General de Vida Silvestre, which sets out the rules for interacting with the species listed in NOM 059 SEMARNAT-2010. 

As all Alamos sites (and 100% of our proven and probable mineral reserves) are located within or near sites with protected conservation status or endangered species habitat, we are mindful of our direct impacts on nature. Our internal Biodiversity and Land Use Standard applies to all Alamos operations. The Standard stipulates that prior to any new surface disturbance, authorization must be sought from the Environmental department (who are responsible for securing all relevant permits), and an assessment of potential impacts to cultural resources, traditional knowledge, territorial lands, archeological features, listed wildlife and vegetation species, sensitive areas, sensitive habitats, and wetlands must be conducted. The Standard also requires that sites minimize ecosystem disturbance to only what is essential for safe and efficient operations, and that they control the influence of introduced species – particularly invasive plant species, weeds, feral predators, and plant and animal diseases. Further, working closely with environmental professionals and local authorities, Alamos applies the Mitigation Hierarchy principles in seeking to avoid, minimise, restore/rehabilitate, or offset our impacts wherever possible.  

In 2022, Alamos began working towards our goal of implementing a Biodiversity and Land Use Management Plan (BLUMP) at each of our operating sites, beginning with Island Gold. These BLUMPs will aim to outline procedures and processes to ensure the protection of fragile ecosystems, habitats, and endangered species in the specific context of each site. While our policies and practices were not specifically developed to satisfy the IFC’s Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability, they are aligned with the general themes of Performance Standard 6: Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Living Natural Resources 

Land Use

Table 4.15

Young-DavidsonIsland GoldMulatosLynn Lake ProjectEl Chanate
Location of
 OperationMatachewan, Ontario Dubreuilville, Ontario Sierra Madre Occidental Mountain Range, Sonora Lynn Lake, ManitobaSonora
Type of OperationExtractiveExtractiveExtractiveExtractiveExtractive
Total Area Disturbed and Unrehabilitated at Jan 1 2022 (Opening Balance) (ha) 4322151,095 153116
Area Newly Disturbed in the Year (ha) 010700
Area Newly Rehabilitated in 
the Year (ha) 00000
Total Area Disturbed and Unrehabilitated at Dec 31 2022 (Closing Balance) (ha) 432225 1,102 153116 
Total Area Rehabilitated over the Life of Mine (ha) 160300282

While our business has inherent effects on nature for the duration of the life-of-mine, a number of these effects are positive. For example, the water discharged from our sites is often of higher quality than the baseline quality of the area. At Young-Davidson, Alamos has seeded and covered historic mine tailings located within the property to reintroduce vegetation to what was previously unusable land. Further, many of the mining process’ negative impacts are temporary and addressed during the closure and reclamation phases of the mine life cycle. In keeping with our company-wide Mine Closure Standard, all of Alamos’ mines are equipped with a closure plan and are considered in our Asset Retirement Obligation (ARO) exercise, which helps to fulfill our legal obligation in Canada to set aside sufficient funds for the decommissioning and remediation of every mine we operate. Closure Plans and the ARO are annually reviewed, with budgets being independently examined. We frequently update our closure plans in accordance with legislative requirements and industry best practices. Alamos aims to practice progressive reclamation wherever possible, by restoring disturbed land as soon as it is no longer required. The ways in which we restore these lands are being increasingly influenced by our communities of interest. Our objective in closure is to rehabilitate our sites to an ecologically healthy state that is agreed upon by local stakeholders.

Air Quality

Alamos conducts air quality monitoring at all operations to protect both human and environmental health, and to comply with all relevant jurisdictional requirements. Our Canadian operations are subject to the requirements of their Environmental Compliance Approvals (ECAs) for Air and Noise granted by the province of Ontario’s Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Parks. They are also federally required to annually report significant air emissions to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI). Mexican regulation does not possess these requirements, thus while the Mulatos Mine does track air emissions as required, it does not comprehensively track Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), PM2.5, Carbon Monoxide (CO), Lead (Pb), or Mercury (Hg).  

Significant Air Emissions (tonnes)

Table 4.16

Alamos Total
Young-DavidsonIsland GoldMulatos2022202138202038
SOx1.0 0.4 14.0 15.4 15.0 11.0 
VOC30.4 12.5 42.9 
HAP37.8 1.7 39.5 
PM1012.0 66.8 148.0 226.8 187.0 244.0 
PM2.5185.0 396.7 60.0 
CO185.0 396.7 582.0 
Pb0.000682 0.000552 0.001234 
Hg0.0000000449 0.000002 0.00000204 
  1. Within the organization. Energy consumption outside of the organization is not tracked.
  2. A portion of Heavy Fuel Oil is combusted in explosives and considered “stationary combustion”
  3. Heavy Fuel Oil, Propane, and Compressed Natural Gas are indicative of energy used for heating. Alamos does not consume steam. Cooling is untracked and a component of our electricity use.
  4. Alamos does not sell electricity.
  5. Excludes Electricity Generated at Mulatos, as this is included within Petroleum Diesel subtotal.
  6. Includes only energy use within the organization, from all energy types included in Energy Consumption table.
  7. Discharges, Consumption, Water Use, Portion of Water Recycled/Reused, and Water Intensity have been restated for 2021 and 2020 on account of water discharges having been materially under-reported for the Mulatos Mine in years prior. These restatements do not include Young-Davidson rain and snowmelt.
  8. 4766.63 without Young-Davidson rain and snowmelt.
  9. 2352.99 without Young-Davidson rain and snowmelt.
  10. 4393.53 without Young-Davidson rain and snowmelt.
  11. 46.4% without Young-Davidson rain and snowmelt.
  12. 0.20 without Young-Davidson rain and snowmelt.
  13. No Alamos operation uses Mercury (Hg) in the processing of gold.
  14. All water is freshwater (<1000mg/L Total Dissolved Solids), and none is withdrawn or discharged to water stressed areas.
  15. 2022 withdrawal totals include rain and snow melt for the first time.
  16. Cubic meter of water consumed per tonne of ore treated.
  17. All water is freshwater (<1000mg/L Total Dissolved Solids), and none is withdrawn or discharged to water stressed areas.
  18. Cubic meter of water consumed per tonne of ore treated.
  19. All water is freshwater (<1000mg/L Total Dissolved Solids), and none is withdrawn or discharged to water stressed areas.
  20. Cubic meter of water consumed per tonne of ore treated.
  21. In development in 2022, implemented Q1 2023.
  22. Sent to off-site landfills for Young-Davidson and Island Gold, and to an on-site landfill at Mulatos.
  23. Used oil, sent for off-site treatment or used on-site as fuel.
  24. For mineral waste, disposal refers to safe on-site storage for eventual remediation.
  25. Non-Potentially Acid Generating Waste Rock.
  26. Potentially Acid Generating Waste Rock.
  27. All Tailings are considered hazardous.
  28. Includes dominantly mineral waste stored on-site. See Non-Mineral Waste disposal totals for total waste sent to landfill.
  29. Observed or potentially occurring in the Local Assessment Area and/or Regional Assessment Area
  30. Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra)
  31. Galanthus trojanus and European Eel (Anguilla anguilla)
  32. Mojave Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)
  33. Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus)
  34. Eastern Small-footed Bat (Myotis leibii) and Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus)
  35. Gila Chub (Gila intermedia), Headwater Livebearer (Poeciliopsis monacha), and Yaqui Catfish (Ictalurus pricei)
  36. Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) and Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)
  37. Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis)
  38. POP, VOC, HAP, PM2.5, CO, Pb, and Hg were reported for the first time in 2022.